Periodontal treatment methods depend upon the type and severity of the disease. Your dentist and dental hygienist will evaluate for periodontal disease and recommend the appropriate treatment.
Periodontal disease progresses as the sulcus (pocket or space) between the tooth and gums gets filled with bacteria, plaque, and tartar, causing irritation to the surrounding tissues. When these irritants remain in the pocket space, they can cause damage to the gums and eventually, the bone that supports the teeth!
If the disease is caught in the early stages of gingivitis, and no significant bone loss has been done, treatment would include deeper cleaning (Root planing) with local anesthetic. You will also be given instructions on improving your daily oral hygiene habits and having regular dental cleanings.
If the disease has progressed to more severe stages with deep pocketing and more considerable bone loss, pocket reduction surgery (also known as osseous surgery and flap surgery) will be required to access the root surfaces of the teeth to visually clean of plaque and calculus and reduce pocketing.